Flooding is a common problem in vintage Hondas – especially on bikes that don’t get run much. Flooding can be just a minor aggravation …like hard starting or poor fuel mileage. But, it can also lead to catastrophic problems such as severe engine damage or even a fire! Flooding issues should not be ignored!
Elsewhere, I wrote:
“Fuel regulation is accomplished by the rise and fall of each float. As the float rises to the appropriate level, the float pushes against a rubber-tipped float “needle” which operates against a precision machined “seat” to stop the flow of fuel. Likewise, when the float falls, the float needle opens the fuel inlet and allows fuel to flow into the bowl. In actual operation, the float needle oscillates through a relatively small range of motion. Sometimes theorists describe this motion as “vibration.” A running engine has a constant need for fuel, so the float needle is rarely 100% closed. Rather, it’s mostly regulating the flow rate of fuel into the carb bowl.
Only when the engine is shut down, does 100% closure need to occur.
Here are the usual causes of flooding. This material is written for the Honda GL1000, but much of this applies to other models:
- Debris under float needle from contaminated fuel
- “Dirty” carbs that need internal cleaning
- Misadjusted, damaged, saturated or “binding” float(s)
- Worn out float valves (needle and/or seat)
- Defective aftermarket float needle / seat assemblies (regardless of age…even new ones leak)
- Damaged oring/washer at float seat
- Float seat not installed all the way “home” into carb body
- Defective float bowl gaskets
- Float bowl gaskets damaged by carb cleaning agent abuse
- Inferior, “re-active” float bowl gaskets swollen to the point of float operation interference
- Damaged plenum gasket
- Damaged carb-to-plenum FUEL seals
- Damaged carb body (rare)
- Carb body casting defect (rare)
- Float(s) installed upside down – more common than you would expect!
- Excessive fuel pressure from incorrectly chosen electric fuel pump conversion
Using a vacuum pump, perform the fuel circuit tests shown in the Carb Rebuild DVD and also here. If the rack passes this testing, that eliminates the central plenum gasket, the 4 carb-to-plenum useals, carb body casting and central plenum casting.
If the fuel circuit testing “fails,” that usually points to one or more faulty float valve assemblies and/or binding or misadjusted floats. If the rack fails this testing, you will need to completely disassemble and investigate.
(While you are doing this testing, also check the “air” channels that support the air cut-off valve system.)
I use and recommend only genuine Honda float valve assemblies. Aftermarket float valve sets are notoriously unreliable. Used float valves are difficult to evaluate and test. That’s why renewing during a rebuild with new Honda parts is advised.
…and according to noted expert Mike Nixon:
“With new float valves, flooding should be a very rare event. However, it does not mean the carbs are at fault if the float bowls occasionally overflow. Float valves are designed just like toilet valves with the same kind of stopper valve. You can expect them to “burp” once in a while due to debris, water or just plain orneriness.”
Be aware also that due to the design of the GL1000 plenum, just because fuel appears to leaking in the vicinity of carb #x, that does not mean that carb #x is the one that is actually leaking. This is especially true if the bike is resting on the sidestand.
Float bowl volume tests are not reliable. The available volume above “normal full” level is trivial and then overflow commences.
These carb don’t have external overflow circuits! Excess fuel overflows and spills into the central plenum then disappears (usually) into the engine …washing down the protective oil film on the cylinders then diluting the oil in the oil pan! This makes tracing the actual source of the flooding more difficult.
Finally, you should always turn off the fuel using the petcock whenever you shut off the engine. This is especially critical until you resolve any flooding issue. Otherwise, you risk hyrdo-lock engine damage. This is reason Honda engineers provided the petcock. It’s a best practice to close the petcock every time you shut off the engine. Do it!